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Gastritis is a term that refers to a range of illnesses that all have one thing in common: inflammation of the stomach lining. Gastritis is caused by an infection with the same bacteria that causes most stomach ulcers, or by taking particular pain medicines on a frequent basis. Gastritis can also be aggravated by excessive alcohol consumption.

Gastritis can emerge quickly (acute gastritis) or gradually over time (chronic gastritis). Gastritis can lead to ulcers and an increased risk of stomach cancer in some circumstances. However, for most people,  gastritis isn’t serious and improves quickly with treatment. 

The difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection between the three major ethnic groups concurs with other studies done in Malaysia. The reason for this interesting finding is uncertain and is suspected to be due to different environmental, genetic and socio-cultural practices in the various races.

  • What is acute gastritis?

Acute gastritis is a condition in which the stomach lining, known as the gastric mucosa, becomes inflamed suddenly. An endoscopy by a gastroenterologist reveals a reddish lining and a large number of acute inflammatory cells in the specimens (mainly white blood cells, called leukocytes). Acute erosions (“erosive gastritis”), small, shallow cracks in the surface lining, and even tiny bleeding patches are possible in acute gastritis disease.

  • What is chronic gastritis?

Compare to acute gastritis, chronic gastritis is a low-grade inflammation and damage to the stomach lining that lasts for a long time.

As the normal cells in the stomach mucosa are lost, the mucosa gets thinner. Lymphocytes are among the inflammatory cells, indicating an immunological response. This is extremely frequent, particularly in developing countries. When mucosal abnormalities have been established for a long time, they may advance to a stage called metaplasia, which is associated with a modestly elevated risk of gastric cancer.

What are the symptoms of gastritis?

acute gastritis

Each person’s symptoms may vary. The most common symptoms of gastritis include:

  • Stomach upset or pain
  • Abdominal pain
  • Belly or abdominal bleeding
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Feeling of fullness or burning in your stomach
  • Loss of appetite
  • Blood in your vomit or stool (a sign that your stomach lining may be bleeding)

The symptoms of chronic and acute gastritis may look like other health problems. Always see your healthcare provider to be sure.

How is gastritis diagnosed?

Your healthcare professional will do a physical examination and inquire about your medical history. You may also be subjected to the following tests:

  • Upper GI (gastrointestinal) series or barium swallow 

This X-ray examines the organs of your upper digestive system. The esophagus, stomach, and the first part of your small intestine are all examined (duodenum). A metallic fluid called barium will be ingested. The organs are coated in barium so that they may be viewed on an X-ray.

  • Upper endoscopy

Often known as EGD, is a procedure that examines the inside of the mouth (esophagogastroduodenoscopy). The insides of your esophagus, stomach, and duodenum are examined in this test. It makes use of an endoscope, which is a thin, illuminated tube. At one end of the tube is a camera.

The tube is placed in your mouth and down your throat. The food next passes via your esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. The insides of these organs are visible to your healthcare physician. If necessary, he or she can also extract a tiny tissue sample (biopsy).

  • Blood tests

A test for H. pylori, a type of bacterium that may be present in your stomach, will be performed. Anemia will be checked with another test. When you don’t have enough red blood cells, you can develop anemia.

  • Stool spectrum

This test determines whether you have bacteria in your stomach that can cause gastritis. A little sample of your stool is taken and sent to a lab for analysis. If there has been bleeding in your stool, another sample can be taken to check for blood, which could be an indication of gastritis.

  • Breath test

You may be subjected to a test in which your breath is taken and examined for stomach bacteria.

What causes gastritis?

  • Acute Gastritis Causes
    Acute gastritis happens when acute irritants overpower the mucus coating that normally protects the stomach mucosa, resulting in acute gastritis. Aspirin and other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines), toxins (including strong alcohol), and certain illnesses, such as the early stages of helicobacter pylori infection, are all irritants. When the irritant is removed, the irritation usually subsides fast.
  • What is Helicobacter Pylori?

Helicobacter pylori (also known as H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that can be discovered in the stomach. Indeed, it is estimated that more than half of the world’s population has this bacteria yet never exhibits any symptoms. An H. pylori infection, on the other hand, can raise the risk of stomach cancer, gastritis, and/or peptic ulcers.

Based on Gurgett research in 2013 in Peninsular Malaysia, the overall H. pylori infection prevalence rate was unusually low at 13.5% (54 of 400) in this region. The prevalence among the races was as follows: Malay 6.6% (17/256), Chinese 24.1% (27/112), and Indian 28.6% (6/21). Gender and age were not significantly associated factors for H. pylori infection. However there was an increased risk of H. pylori infection in Chinese (OR= 4.46, 95%CI, 2.3–8.6) and Indians (OR=5.6, 95%CI, 1.9–16.3) compared to Malays.

The difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection between the three major ethnic groups concurs with other studies done in Malaysia. The reason for this interesting finding is uncertain and is suspected to be due to different environmental, genetic, and socio-cultural practices in the various races.

  • Chronic Gastritis Causes

Infection with the helicobacter pylori bacteria is the most common cause of chronic gastritis (or H. pylori). H. pylori infection is found in roughly 20% of Caucasians in the United States, but in over 50% of Hispanics, African Americans, and the elderly. Adults in poor nations may be infected at rates as high as 90%.

Risk factor of Gastritis


Factors that increase your risk getting chronic and acute gastritis include:

  • Infection with bacteria. Although Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common human illnesses globally, only a small percentage of those infected suffer gastritis or other upper gastrointestinal problems. Doctors believe that the bacterium’s sensitivity can be inherited or caused by lifestyle factors such as smoking and eating a poor diet.
  • Regular use of pain relievers. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs) including ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, and others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve, Anaprox DS) can cause acute and chronic gastritis. Regular use of certain pain medications, or taking too much of them, may cause a decrease in a vital substance that aids in the preservation of the stomach’s protective lining.
  • Older age. Because the stomach lining thins with age, and older folks are more likely than younger people to have H. pylori infection or autoimmune illnesses, they have a higher risk of gastritis.
  • Excessive alcohol use. Alcohol can irritate and damage the lining of your stomach, making it more exposed to digestive juices. Acute gastritis is more likely to develop if you drink too much alcohol.
  • Stress. Acute gastritis can be caused by significant stress caused by major surgery, injuries, burns, or serious infections.
  • Treatment for cancer. Gastritis can be exacerbated by chemotherapy medicines or radiation therapy.
  • Your stomach cells are being attacked by your own body. This type of gastritis is known as autoimmune gastritis, and it develops when your body assaults the cells that make up your stomach lining. The protective barrier in your stomach may be eroded as a result of this reaction. People with other autoimmune illnesses, such as Hashimoto’s disease and type 1 diabetes, are more likely to develop autoimmune gastritis. Vitamin B-12 deficiency has also been linked to autoimmune gastritis.
  • Other illnesses and sicknesses. Gastritis has been linked to HIV/AIDS, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, sarcoidosis, and parasite infections, among other medical disorders

How is gastritis treated?

  •  Acute Gastritis Treatment

Obviously, the most significant element of acute gastritis treatment is removing the irritant when it is discovered. Simple antacids, stronger “H2 antagonists,” or a “Proton pump inhibitor” can all assist to reduce the quantity of acid in the stomach. It’s possible that anti-nausea medicine will be required.

In acute gastritis cases, if symptoms do not improve quickly or if any vomit contains blood, a physician should be consulted for further examinations and more advanced treatments. When H. pylori infection is discovered, antibiotics are prescribed for up to two weeks, often in combination. Unless the irritation or infection is removed, most cases resolve quickly.

  • Chronic Gastritis Treatment
    Antibiotics must be used to eradicate any causal infection (typically H. pylori) in order to prevent chronic gastritis from progressing, but the stomach mucosa seldom recovers to normal. Intermittent injections of vitamin B12 are used to treat vitamin B12 insufficiency.

Patients with severe mucosal abnormalities (i.e., pre-cancerous changes in the cell lining of the stomach) may require an upper endoscopy once or twice a year to detect and treat lesions that could develop into cancer.In 

Can gastritis be prevented?

Experts are unsure whether or not it is possible to prevent chronic and acute 

gastritis. However, you can reduce your chances of contracting the condition by doing the following:

  • Having good hygienic practices, particularly handwashing. This can help you avoid becoming infected with the H. pylori bacteria.
  • Avoid foods and beverages that irritate your stomach lining. Alcohol, caffeine, and spicy foods are all examples of this.
  • Not using aspirin or over-the-counter pain relievers and fever reducers (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs).

other complication Caused by Gastritis

The stomach lining is damaged by chronic gastritis. It can put you at risk for a variety of other health issues. These are some of them:

  • Peptic ulcer disease is a type of stomach ulcer. This results in painful ulcers in the upper intestine.
  • Polyps in the stomach. These are tiny cell aggregates that grow on the interior of your stomach’s lining.
  • Tumors of the stomach. These could be cancerous or non-cancerous (benign).

When should you see a doctor?

Almost everyone has experienced indigestion and stomach distress at some point in their lives. Indigestion is usually very temporary and does not necessitate medical attention. If you’ve had signs and symptoms of gastritis for a week or more, see your doctor.

If you are experiencing extreme pain, vomiting, or feeling light-headed or dizzy, seek medical help right once. If you have stomach pain after using prescription or over-the-counter medications, especially aspirin or other pain relievers, tell your doctor.

If you’re vomiting blood, have blood in your stools, or have black stools, contact your doctor immediately soon to figure out what’s wrong.

Lifestyle and dietary changes

Making dietary and lifestyle changes can help treat or prevent chronic and acute gastritis.

According to, these are some common dietary recommendations for people with chronic gastritis:

  • lowering or eliminating alcohol consumption
  • spicy foods should be avoided
  • avoiding foods that are rich, greasy, or fried
  • acidic foods should be avoided, especially citrus fruits and liquids
  • consuming fewer but larger meals on a more frequent basis
  • lowering sodium intake
  • decreased red meat consumption
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Eating a well-balanced, antioxidant-rich, fiber-rich, and probiotic-rich diet may also assist. These chemicals can be found in foods such as:

  • fruits and vegetables in their natural state
  • lean proteins, such as chicken, fish,
  • beans, lentils, nuts, and seeds whole.
  • grain bread, cereals, rice, and pasta
  • fermented products, such as yogurt, kefir, sourdough bread, sauerkraut, and kimchi.


Some persons with chronic gastritis may benefit from foods that have antibacterial qualities, such as:

  • garlic
  • cumin
  • ginger
  • turmeric
  • cranberries
  • peppers
  • mild Currie
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People with chronic and acute gastritis also should make the following lifestyle changes:

  • smoking cessation.
  • NSAIDs should be avoided or used in moderation, and if necessary, alternate drugs should be discussed with a doctor.
  • consuming healthy foods and maintaining proper personal hygiene, such as washing hands frequently. 
  • drinking enough water to be hydrated.
  • Relaxation techniques and practices, such as meditation, yoga, controlled breathing, and acupuncture, can help you manage stress and discomfort which can prevent chronic and acute gastritis
  • exercising regularly.


The outlook for chronic and acute gastritis depends on the underlying cause.

Acute gastritis normally clears up with treatment. Infections caused by H. pylori, for example, can usually be cured with one or two rounds of medication.

However, if treatment fails, the condition might progress to chronic or long-term gastritis. Consult your doctor to come up with a treatment plan that is right for you.

Gastritis Infographic

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